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Author Guidelines


1. Types of Manuscripts
2. The Structural Elements of Article
3. Adherence to Ethical Standards
4. Technical Requirements for Article Formatting: FIGURES / TABLES 
5. Citation and In-Text References
6. Formatting for References
7. File Names when Submitting an Article
8. Publication Fees

1. Types of Manuscripts

Preschool Education: Global Trends considers manuscripts in the formats described below. Inquiries concerning alternative formats should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission. Note that we encourage extensive use of electronic supplements that do not count toward the page limit. Please, note that we encourage the authors to include the DOI at the end of each cited article in the References section (that does not count toward the page limit).

The Journal focuses on publishing empirical research. In order to be accepted for publication, empirical articles should (i) be of high scientific quality, (ii) contribute to the scientific understanding of child development, (iii) involve important theoretical, practical, and/or interdisciplinary implications. Whereas empirical research is encouraged, case studies  are also considered. All types of empirical research are welcome.

Reviews focus on past empirical and/or conceptual and theoretical work. They are expected to synthesize, analyze, and/or critically evaluate a topic or issue relevant to child development, or professional development should appeal to a broad audience, and may be followed by a small number of solicited commentaries. A large majority of the reviews accepted for publication at Preschool Education: Global Trends are meta-analyses or invited narrative reviews. Quantitative meta-analyses may be up to 40 pages in length to accommodate sample-specific detail. Usually, the reviews accepted for publication at Preschool Education: Global Trends are meta-analyses or invited narrative reviews. Quantitative meta-analyses may be up to 40 pages in lengthl.

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2. The Structural Elements of Article

  • Abstract (maximum 300 words). It should be structured and contain the following components: Purpose, Procedure and Methods, Results, Conclusions.
  • Key words. Please, provide between five and seven words that reflect the research problem.
  • Introduction. This article section should present the relevance of the study, outline its problems, analyzes various scientific studies in relation to the study (including the prior literature published in Scopus- and WoS-indexed journals), clearly indicates the research object, and formulates the purpose of the study. All in-text references should be reflected in the reference list at the end of the article.
  • Theoretical Background. This article section should specify the theoretical framework of the study.
  • Procedure and Methods. This article section should describe the procedure in the study. Importantly, the article section should specify theoretical and/or empirical research methods in the study and provide the purpose of their use. If necessary, the section should provide a detailed description of the quantitative research methods.
  • Participants. For the empirical studies that involve participants, the authors should indicate the number of participants in the experiment and describe sampling strategies.
  • Results. This article section should show a detailed description of the results of theoretical and/or empirical research.
  • Discussion. This article section should involve a discussion of polemical points related to the research issue, provide a comparative analysis of the results in the study with the prior research that is relevant to the study. The authors’ own opinion in the discussion section should be substantiated.
  • Conclusions. This article section should provide a generalization of the results and prospects for further research.
  • ADHERENCE TO ETHICAL STANDARDS. This section should provide information on ethical approvals, financing, conflicts of interest, and authors’ contribution in case of multiple authors. Ethical approvals should indicate whether informed consent has been obtained from all potential participants in the experiment to participate voluntarily in the study.

    Ethics Declarations. If the experiment involves the participation of children of preschool or school age, it must be declared whether or not to the informed consent of their parents or their legal representatives has been obtained. The authors should indicate whether all experimental procedures with human participation in the study complied with the ethical standards of the Institutional and/or National Research Committee, as well as the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and its subsequent amendments or corresponding ethical standards. It should be reported whether an ethical examination of the study has been carried out and whether it has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the relevant university or research institution where the study was performed).
    Funding. The authors should indicate information on the sources of funding or lack there of. Sample messages (view).
    Conflict of Interest. Conflict of Interests reports the lack of conflicting interests, i.e. commercial, financial/non-financial that could be considered as a potential conflict of interest. Sample messages (view).
    Author's Contribution. If the article is co-authored, please specify the personal contribution of each of the co-authors in the study and writing of the article. (1). Taxonomy of the author’s roles – Credit taxonomy. (2) Sample notice of copyright contribution
    Consent for Publication.

  • References. The References section involves the list of sources that are presented according to APA Style 7th. References should involve scientific articles that were published in the Scopus- and WoS-indexed journals.
  • Appendices (if available).

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3. Adherence to Ethical Standards

The publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of work of the author and the institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree upon standards of expected ethical behaviour.

Please read the information about preparing your article with observance of generally recognized ethical standards developed by Elsevier Researcher Academy.

Attention! In order to ensure objectivity and transparency of research, and to adhere to the accepted principles of ethical and professional behaviour, authors shall include information on the sources of funding, potential conflict of interests (financial or non-financial), informed consent to voluntary participation of a person in an experimental research (if an experimental research envisages participation of pre-school-age children and school-age children, such informed consent shall be obtained from parents of the children). Authors shall include the corresponding information into a dedicated part of the article entitled “Adherence to Ethical Standards”.

Authors shall be prepared to collect documents confirming adherence to ethical standards during the research and submit the corresponding documents to the editorial office of the scientific publication (journal) if this is suggested during the expert evaluation of the manuscript. The editorial office shall reserve the right to reject manuscripts that fail to comply with ethical publishing policy, or do so if the author(s) refuses to provide corresponding documents to confirm adherence to ethical standards. The author(s) shall be responsible for accuracy of the provided information.

Examples of statement formulation in the section “ADHERENCE TO ETHICAL STANDARDS”

Examples of Statements to be Used when Ethics Approval Has been Obtained

(1) Reporting on "Ethics Declarations"

  • All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the University of A (No. ...).
  • This study was performed in line with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Approval was granted by the Ethics Committee of University B (Date.../No. ...).
  • Approval was obtained from the ethics committee of University C. The procedures used in this study adhere to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.
  • The questionnaire and methodology for this study was approved by the Human Research Ethics committee of the University of D (Ethics approval number: ...).

(2). Reporting on “Funding

  • Partial financial support was received from ...
  • The research received funding from … under Grant Agreement No.__.
  • This research was financed by …
  • This research was conducted with financial support from … (Grant No. ___).

If no funding was provided.

  • The author(s) did not receive financial support from any organization to conduct their research.
  • No funding was received to assist in preparation and conduct of this research, as well as in composition of this article.
  • No funding was received to conduct this research.
  • For conduct of this research, no funds, grants or other support was received.

(3). Reporting on “Conflict of interests

  • The author does not have any financial interests to disclose.
  • The author does not have any potential conflict of interests that may influence the decision to publish this article.
  • The author hereby confirms absence of association with any organization or company that may have any financial or non-financial interest in the materials of research discussed in this article.
  • The author does not have any financial or property interests concerning the materials presented in this article.

(4). Reporting on "Author's Contribution" (if the article is co-authored – specify the personal contribution of each of the co-authors in the study and writing of the article). Taxonomy of the author’s roles – Credit taxonomy.

Sample notice of copyright contribution. 

Full name: Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal analysis and investigation; Writing - original draft preparation, Writing - review and editing; Full name: Funding acquisition, Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data; Full name: Resources, Supervision, Preparation of tables, figures, diagrams; Full name: Programming, Software development, Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs, Submission of a data set to the international repository.

(5). Reporting on "Consent for publication"

The authors approve of this submission and, conditional upon the decision made by the editorial board from the peer-review process, consent to the publication of the current work. The work has not been, nor has it been submitted to other journals in consideration for publication.

Please note that the author shall be responsible for reliability of the information they provided, and for proper formulation of statements.

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4. Technical Requirements for Article Formatting: FIGURES / TABLES

Margins: bottomtop – 2 cm; right – 1.5 cm; left – 3 cm.
Indent – 1.25 cm.
Text editor: МS Word.
Font: Times New Roman, font size 14, spacing – 1,5.
Text should be typed without hyphenation.

The total length of the article shall not exceed 10000 words (approximately 58824 characters with spaces). If your article is longer than this, please contact the editorial office.


Left side:

  • UDC code (for authors from Ukraine and the Commonwealth of Independent States)
  • Title of the article (in English)
  • Title of the article (in Ukrainian)
  • Abstract in English (300 words/1800 characters without spaces).
  • Key words in English (5-7 words).
  • Text of the Article
  • References
  • Abstract in Ukrainian (1,800 characters without spaces).
  • Key words in Ukrainian (5-7 words).

ARTICLE (sample)


Please make sure your title page contains the following information.


The title should be concise and informative.

Author information

  • The name(s) of the author(s)
  • Academic degree, academic title, position (in English)
  • E-mail
  • 16-digit ORCID of the author(s) (obligatory)
  • Researcher ID (optional)
    Scopus ID (optional)
  • The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
  • A clear indication and an active e-mail address of the corresponding author

Statements and Declarations
The following statements should be included under the heading "Statements and Declarations" for inclusion in the published paper. Please note that submissions that do not include relevant declarations will be returned as incomplete.

TITLE PAGE (sample)


Figures/Illustrations (if any):
All authors must strictly follow the guidelines below for preparing illustrations for publication in journal of "Psycholinguistics". If the figures are found to be sub-standard, then the manuscripts will be rejected.

The authors are expected to submit good quality figure(s) in PDF, PPT, MS Word, TIFF or JPEG versions.

Guideline for Figures/Illustrations

Illustrations must be provided according to the following guideline:

  • Illustrations should be embedded in the text file, and must be numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include only a single illustration which should be cropped to minimize the amount of space occupied by the illustration.
  • If a figure is in separate parts, all parts of the figure must be provided in a single composite illustration file.
  • Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files.
  • All the numbers, symbols and letters in figures should be consistent and clear throughout and large enough to remain readable when the size is reduced for publication.
  • It must be ensured to cite each figure in the text in sequence.


Line Art image type is normally an image based on lines and text. It does not contain tonal or shaded areas. The preferred file format should be TIFF or EPS, with the color mode being Monochrome 1-bit or RGB, in a resolution of 900-1200 dpi.

Halftone image type is a continuous tone photograph containing no text. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 300 dpi.

Combination image type is an image containing halftone , text or line art elements. It should have the preferred file format TIFF, with color mode being RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of 500-900 dpi.

Illustrations may be submitted in the following file formats:

  • Illustrator
  • EPS (preferred format for diagrams)
  • PDF (also especially suitable for diagrams)
  • PNG (preferred format for photos or images)
  • Microsoft Word (version 5 and above; figures must be a single page)
  • PowerPoint (figures must be a single page)
  • TIFF
  • JPEG (conversion should be done using the original file)
  • BMP
  • CDX (ChemDraw)
  • TGF (ISISDraw)

Bentham OPEN does not process figures submitted in GIF format.

For TIFF or EPS figures with considerably large file size restricting the file size in online submissions is advisable. Authors may therefore convert to JPEG format before submission as this results in significantly reduced file size and upload time, while retaining acceptable quality. JPEG is a lossy format. However, in order to maintain acceptable image quality, it is recommended that JPEG files are saved at High or Maximum quality.


  • Data Tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table format.
  • Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory in itself with respect to the details discussed in the table. Detailed legends may then follow.
  • Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1, should follow a title. The title should be in small case with the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at the end of the title.
  • Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according to their appropriate placement in the submitted manuscript.
  • Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as black lines.
  • Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially in order of their citation in the body of the text.
  • If a reference is cited in both the table and text, please insert a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered reference in the text.
  • Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet.
    • It is adequate to present data in Tables to avoid unnecessary repetition and reduce the length of the text.
    • The citation of each table in the text must be ensured.
    • Symbols and nonstandard abbreviations should be explained in the end of the text.
    • All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the table and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section.

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5. Citation and In-Text References

Cited literature and References shall be formatted according to АРА 7th style requirements.

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6. Formatting for References

Cited literature and References shall be formatted according to АРА 7th style requirements.

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7. File Names when Submitting an Article

The article is submitted on the Journal website as Article.doc file and Title Page.doc file, respectively.

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8. Puplication Fees

The cost for 1 page - 2 USD 

The maximum payment for an article is 50 USD (25 page maximum).

The article processing fee covers the costs induced by editing and reviewing process, efficient publication service to the authors, i.e. proofreading, editorial assistance in the publishing process, providing cover layout, typesetting, maintenance of the website of the journal, etc.

The editorial office will contact authors to confirm that the fee is being assessed and to provide information on how to pay it.

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